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Showing 8 results for Zarei

Parvin Zareian, Mahyar Janahmadi, Seyed Mohamamd Firoozabadi, Fereshteh Motamedi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (Fall and Winter 2000)

Ion channels are responsible for control of cell function in excitable tissues such as heart and brain and also in organs and tissues traditionally thought to be non- excitable including liver and epithelium. In the present research, the effect of lead (Pb2+) on Ca2+ -dependent action potential and currents was studied in F77 neuronal soma membrane of Helix aspersa. For this purpose, action potential generation and Ca2+ currents were investigated in the absence and presence of Pb2+ using two-electrode voltage clamp and current clamp methods. Two distinct types of high voltage activated (HVA) calcium currents were recorded. In this respect, one of them was sensitive to nifedipine (1 µM) and the other one was resistant to nifedipine. Extracellular application of Pb2+ at concentrations of 0.6 and 3 µM suppressed the firing behavior of F77 neurons. It also decreased the amplitude and the duration of calcium action potentials. The voltage clamp findings demonstrated that lead blocked more than 50% of HVA Ca2+ currents. The blocking effect of Pb2+ on Ca2+ was time-dependent. Therefore, it can be concluded that Pb2+ may alter the bioelectrical properties of F77 neuron through blocking high voltage activated Ca2+ currents, particularly L-type that are nifedipine sensitive.
Sohrab Esmailie Mahanie, Parvin Zareian, Reza Esmi Jahromie, Mohammad Khaksarie Hadad,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (Spring and Summer 2003)

There are some evidences regarding anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of Licorice common in traditional medicine and its usefulness in Diabetes mellitus and Diabetes insipidus and its stimulatory effect on admeocortical gland. This medicinal plant contains glycyrrhizin, sterogenic substances, cumarins, flavonoids, sterols, choline, asparagine and glaberin. Glycyrrhizin and glaberin have analgesic and anti- inflammatory effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of licorice root extract on acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat's hind paw as compared to anti- inflammatory effect of ibuprofen. For this purpose, adult male rats were divided into eight groups. Paw edema was induced by intraplantar injection of 0.1 ml of 0.5% carrageenan solution. Different doses of licorice root extract (50, l00, 200, 300 mg/kg, i.p.) and ibuprofen (12 mg/kg, i.p.) were given ten minutes before injection of carrageenan. Assessment of edema was performed by evaluation of volume change as determined by plethysmometry and extravasations of Evans blue dye as measured by spectrophotometry and changes in paw weight in test groups as compared to the control group. The results showed that the extract exerts a significant inhibitory effect on hind paw edema (volume) in a dose-dependent manner. In this respect, the maximum inhibition (54%) was achieved at a dose of 300 mg/kg of the extract and this dose was comparable to ibuprofen at a dose of 12 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the extract administration significantly reduced Evans blue content (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg) as compared to the control group. It could be concluded that licorice root extract is able to inhibit acute inflammatory response in the rat hind paw, and these effects are comparable to ibuprofen.
Mohammad Reza Jafarzadeh Shirazi, Farid Pazoohi, Mohammad Javad Zamiri, Mohammad Saeed Salehi, Mohammad Reza Namavar, Amin Tamadon, Nader Tanideh, Afsoon Zarei, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (Spring 2013)

Introduction: RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) is believed to act as an inhibitor of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. The aim of the present study was to compare the expression pattern of RFRP neurons in the dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus (DMH) at different phases of the rat estrous cycle. Methods: The phases of the estrous cycle were determined in 16 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats using vaginal smears. The rats were divided into five groups: proestrus phase (n=4), early estrus phase (n=3), estrus phase (n=3), metestrus phase (n=3) and diestrus phase (n=3). After transcardial perfusion, their brains were removed and fixed. Diencephalon of each rat brain was sectioned, and DMH-containing sections were stained using an immunohistochemical method. The number of RFRP positive neurons in DMH was counted microscopically. Results: Almost all of the neurons expressing RFRP in the DMH were bipolar. Mean and standard error of the number of RFRP neurons during diestrus (45.8±12.6) and estrus phases (44.7±3.6) were greater (P<0.05) than early estrus (18.8±0.8) and proestrus phases (16.2±2.0). Conclusion: Results confirm a regulatory role for RFRP in DMH in the control of rat estrous cycle.
Mohsen Sharifi Klishadi, Farideh Zarei, Shahnaz Shekarforoush, Fereshteh Safari, Fatemeh Safari,
Volume 18, Issue 2 ( Summer 2014)

Introduction: Studies support the idea that low levels of vitamin D are associated with a higher risk of heart disease. Losartan has also been prescribed as a drug commonly used for treating hypertension. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in combination with a non-hypotensive dose of losartan on myocardial infarct size, reperfusion-induced arrhythmia and cardiac expression of survival factors in the ischemicreperfused rat heart. Methods: Male rats were randomly divided into untreated ischemia-reperfused rats (IR group) and groups pretreated with losartan (Los+IR) or vitamin D3 (VitD+IR) or both of them (Los+VitD+IR). Animals were subjected to 30 min of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Infarct size measurement was performed using tetrazolium chloride. Incidence of arrhythmia was analysed according to Lambeth convention. Gene expression was evaluated by real time RT-PCR technique. Results: In VitD+IR and Los+IR groups the infarct size did not differ significantly. In Los+VitD+IR group, the infarct size was decreased by 21.4±7.3% (P<0.001 vs. IR, P<0.05 vs. VitD+IR, P<0.01 vs. Los+IR). The number of ventricular ectopic beats was 201±32 beats in Los+VitD+IR group (P<0.001 vs. IR, P<0.01 vs. VitD+IR, P<0.05 vs Los+IR ). The increase of thioredoxin-1 and catalase transcription levels was not significant in Los+IR and VitD+IR groups, however, in Los+VitD+IR group the mRNA levels of these survival factors were markedly increased (P<0.001 vs IR). Conclusion: Co-administration of a non-hypotensive dose of losartan and vitamin D3 protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury accompanied by an increase in transcription of prosurvival factors
Zahra Akbari, Zahra Sedaghat, Mansour Esmaili-Dehaj, Esmat Karamean, Narjes Zarei, Abbas Keshavarzi, Khalil Pourkhalili,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (Fall 2014)

Introduction: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protects skeletal muscles from ischemia-reperfusion injury and improves physical exercise performance. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether application of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) of upper limbs would affect the pulmonary function tests and the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Methods: Twenty healthy trained and untrained subjects were examined under 2 experimental conditions of control and RIPC groups. All individuals attended the laboratory twice, once as the control group and the next time as the RIPC group in a counterbalanced order. These visits were at least 1 week apart and were taken place at the same time of the day. RIPC was induced using a protocol of three cycles of 5 min ischemia/5 min reperfusion in both arms. Pulmonary function tests and oxygen saturation (SPO2) were measured before and after the RIPC protocol. VO2max was estimated by the Queen Step Test. Results: Analysis of data revealed that RIPC increased FEV1, FEF25-75 and MVV tests in the untrained group, while it increased FVC, FEV1, FEF25-75 and MVV tests in the trained group. Preconditioning also increased VO2max and the maximal heart rate in trained subjects. Conclusion: These results show that pre-exercise induction of limb ischemic preconditioning improves pulmonary function tests and VO2max especially in trained subjects. Thus, this technique may be appropriate for the enhancement of exercise performance in athletes during competitions and also for improving the respiratory function in different pulmonary diseases in the near future.
Ali Zarei, Ali Akbar Malekirad, Mohammad Abdollahi, Gholamhassan Vaezi, Saeed Changizi-Ashtiyani,
Volume 21, Issue 2 (June 2017)

Introduction: Diabetes is a multifactorial syndrome with high prevalence which may induce serious disorders in the body organs like the liver and kidney. This study aimed to compare the effects of the alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Swertia longifolia Boiss on blood glucose, lipid profiles and liver and kidney function tests in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Methods: Thirty five male rats were put into five groups: control, diabetic control and three diabetic experimental groups which were gavaged with alcoholic extract of Swertia longifolia Boiss at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg BW and glibenclamide at a dose of 10 mg/kg BW, respectively. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. At the end of day 21 blood samples were collected from all groups and the blood factors were measured and analyzed. Results: The levels of creatinine, urea, liver enzymes, cholesterol and low density lipoprotein increased in the diabetic control group compared to the control, while the mentioned factors in the groups receiving Swertia longifolia Boiss alcoholic extract decreased significantly (P<0.05). In the experimental group receiving glibenclamide, the levels of creatinine, urea and lipid profiles also decreased, while the levels of liver enzymes and insulin significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: The consumption of the alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Swertia longifolia Boiss by lowering lipid profiles, liver enzymes, creatinine and urea as well as increasing insulin levels had beneficial effects on the hepatic and renal functions and could alleviate the symptoms of increased glucose and hyperlipidemia in diabetic rats.

Parham Reisi, Fatemeh Sepahvand, Ghasem Zarei, Leila Kamali Dolatabadi, Shaghayegh Haghjooye Javanmard, Hojjatallah Alaei,
Volume 21, Issue 2 (June 2017)

Introduction: Studies have indicated that diabetes mellitus impairs hippocampus. Diabetes increases the risk of depression and treatment with antidepressants may affect learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of amitriptyline and fluoxetine on synaptic plasticity and TNF-α level in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Experimental groups were control, diabetes, diabetes-amitriptyline and diabetes-fluoxetine (n=8 for each experimental group). Three weeks after the induction of diabetes, the rats received treatment with amitriptyline (5 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (5 mg/kg) for 21 days. Long-term potentiation (LTP) in perforant path-dentate gyrus synapses was assessed (by 400 Hz tetanization) for investigating the effect of treatments on synaptic plasticity. Field excitatory post-synaptic potential indices were measured. Finally, TNF-α levels were measured in hippocampus by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Results: Six weeks after the diabetes induction, LTP wasn’t different between the control and the diabetes groups and also no significant differences were observed between the diabetes and the diabetes-treated groups; however, amitriptyline and fluoxetine impaired LTP in diabetic rats and there was a significant difference between the control and the diabetes-treated groups. Comparing to the controls, TNF-α level was increased significantly (P<0.05) only in the diabetes-amitriptyline group. Conclusion: Results suggest that amitriptyline and fluoxetine intensify the destructive effects of diabetes on hippocampus and that TNF-α may act as a mediator for these changes; however, other factors may also be involved. Hence, treatment of diabetic patients with antidepressants must be done with extra care.

Hiva Alipanah, Parvin Zareian,
Volume 22, Issue 3 (September 2018)

Introduction: Boswellia serrata is a medicinal plant with immense potential in combating cancer. Since many cancers therapeutics have their roots in natural products, we investigated the inhibitory effect of B. serrata gum resin alcoholic extract (BSE) on tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis in 4T1 breast cancer mouse model. Methods: Cell viability of BSE on triple negative cancer cell line, 4T1, was measured by MTT assay. In the anti-breast cancer study, female BALB/c mice in four groups (n=5) were implanted into the mammary fat pad with 4T1 cells (1×105 cells/0.1 ml) and treated by BSE (50, 150 and 250mg/kg) and distilled water for 21 days. Anti-proliferation and anti-angiogenesis effects of BSE in tumor tissues were evaluated by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis for Ki-67 and CD31 expression. The metastatic rate was investigated in the liver and lung tissues by histopathological analysis. Results: In in-vitro toxicity study, 4T1 cells line were sensitive to BSE treatment with reduced cell viability. BSE suppression of 4T1 tumor growth correlated with reduced cell proliferation as revealed by IHC analysis for Ki-67 expression. Analyses of the vasculature in the tumor tissues indicated smaller vessel area in BSE250 group compared to control tumors based on IHC for angiogenesis marker CD31. BSE only significantly decreased the metastatic rate in the lung tissue. Conclusion: From the outcome of our investigation, it is possible to conclude that BSE induces cell-specific cytotoxicity and suppresses cell proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis rate in breast cancer cells and can be effective for advanced breast cancer.

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