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Showing 13 results for Jafari

Fatemeh Khani, Maryam Radahmadi, Hojjatallah Alaei, Elahe Jafari,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2018)

Introduction: Certain types of chronic mental stress impair memory. On the other hand, Crocin is introduced in the medical literature as an effective component of saffron with remedial effects on memory impairment. This study investigates the effects of crocin on spatial and cognitive memories, locomotor activity, novel recognition conditions, and serum corticosterone levels in rats under chronic isolation stress.
Method: Male rats were randomly allocated to the five groups of control, sham, isolation stress (St.I), St.I-C30, and St.I-C60. The latter two groups were exposed to chronic isolation stress (6h/day) receiving two levels of crocin (30 and 60 mg/kg, respectively) over a period of 21 days. The object location and novel object recognition tests (OLT and NOR) were used to evaluate spatial and cognitive memories, respectively.
Results: The OLT results revealed that chronic isolation stress led to significantly decreased locomotor activity in all the stressed groups; the NOR test, however, yielded similar results only in the  St.I group. Moreover, isolation stress was found to lead to significant declines in spatial and cognitive memories. Finally, crocin administration led to improvements in impaired memory in St.I-C30 and St.I-C60. There were significant enhancements in serum corticosterone levels in the St.I and St.I-C30 groups as compared with the control group.
Conclusion: Our findings indicate that spatial and cognitive memory impairments are strongly affected by isolation stress and, further, that crocin, especially at its high dose of 60 mg/kg, exhibits better protective effects against cognitive memory deficit induced by chronic isolation stress.
Fatemeh Davoudzadeh, Parvin Babaei, Adele Jafari,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (11-2018)

Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a common progressive, neurodegenerative disorder with no preventive or curative therapy until now. Use of natural products as an important source of neuroprotective flavonoids against AD has been considered recently. In this study, the effect of Mespilus Germanica leaves (MGL) flavonoids treatment on memory dysfunction and apoptosis in the Aβ-treated rat was investigated.
Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats (220-250 g) were divided into 6 groups (n=8): saline, Aβ, treatment (5, 7.5 & 10 mg/kg MGL flavonoids) and positive control group. Step through the passive avoidance test was performed on the 22nd day to examine learning and memory. Immediately afterward, the animals were killed and their brains were removed to measure the levels of cytochrome c in brain homogenate.
Results: Our results showed significant improvement in passive avoidance task as flavonoid (10mg/kg) increased step-through latency (p= 0.003) and decreased the time spent in dark compartment (p=0.001) significantly. In addition, the levels of cytochrome c which was significantly increased in the Aβ-injected group was reduced remarkably in the flavonoid treatment group (p=0.029).
Conclusion: Therefore, MGL flavonoid can improve Aβ1-42 induced memory dysfunction in rats and its effect might be partially due to their role in decreasing apoptosis.
Hassan Mohammadhosseniakbari, Bahram Rasoulian, Mahmood Mofid, Seid Mohammad Hassan Hashemimadani, Mahvash Jafari, Ali Noroozzadeh, Hossein Eimani, Gholamreza Baqeri, Hamidreza Taghipour, Ali Khoshbaten,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (Summer 2008)

Introduction: Using brief episodes of ischemia and reperfusion (IR) prior to a more sustained IR insult – ischemic preconditioning (IPC) – can reduce IR injury of the heart, brain and many other tissues. The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of 2min ischemic periods on subsequent rat renal IR injury. Methods: Male rat's renal IR injury was investigated in a right nephrectomized model. For this purpose plasma creatinine (Cr) and urea, creatinine clearance, fractional excretion of sodium and histological injury score (Jablonski score 0-4) were compared among these groups: IR group (40min of renal ischemia – followed by 24h reperfusion), sham group (no IR) and IPC group (3 times of 2min ischemia – 5min reperfusion before 40min of renal ischemia – followed by 24h reperfusion). Results: Necrosis score was significantly lower in IPC than IR group and cases with Jablonski score = 4 were significantly less frequent in IPC group compared to IR group (11.1% vs. 75%). Plasma Cr and urea, creatinine clearance and fractional excretion of sodium were not significantly different between IPC and IR groups. Cases with plasma urea levels higher than 190 mg/dl and also cases with fractional excretion of sodium beyond 2% were significantly less frequent in IPC group compared to IR group. Conclusion: Using three times of "2min ischemia–5min reperfusion" before the injurious ischemic insult can reduce rat renal histological injury and relatively attenuate functional renal injury.
Saideh Mikaeili, Mehri Kadkhodaee, Fereshteh Golab, Maryam Zahmatkesh, Mitra Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Behjat Seifi, Hossein-Ali Arab, ُsedighe Shams, Fahimeh Jafari,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (Fall 2009)

Introduction: Liver ischemia/reperfusion (IR) is a major clinical problem, which occurs during several conditions such as liver damage, trauma and transplantation. Recent studies indicate that IR-induced acute liver failure causes injuries of distant organs such as heart and lungs by systematic inflammatory responses. Therefore, in the present study, effects of hepatic IR induction were studied on the kidneys. Methods: Male rats were subjected to either sham operation or 90 min liver ischemia followed by 4 or 24 hrs of reperfusion. Liver IR injury was assessed by measurement of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) levels. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) were determined as renal function indices. Renal malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were also evaluated for assessment of oxidative stress. Results: Ninety min liver ischemia followed by 4 hours of reperfusion caused a reduction in renal function demonstrated by an increase in BUN level. This was accompanied by an increase in renal MDA levels and a decrease in SOD and catalase activities. Liver reperfusion for 24 hours resulted in smaller damage to renal function and oxidative stress parameters. Conclusion: This study suggests that liver IR causes renal damage reflected in functional abnormalities and oxidative stress. This damage is reduced by increasing the reperfusion time.
Gholamali Naderi, Abas Jafarian Dehkordi, Sedighe Asgary, Rahele Shami, Narges Jafari,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (Winter 2010)

Introduction: Atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction are serious consequences of the thrombus formation in blood vessels. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels. However, these drugs have certain adverse effects, which cause serious and sometimes fatal consequences. Methods: Plants essential oils were prepared and analyzed by GC/MS. To evaluate the fibrinolytic effect, fibrinogen labeled with FITC was added to the plasma. Ca2+ was used for production of labeled clot. The essential oil (1/10, 1/100, 1/1000 dilutions) with and without streptokinase as a positive control, were added. Fluorescence was determined after 10, 20, 40 and 60 minutes (excitation = 478, emission = 510). Results: Our findings showed that carvacrol was the main component of Zataria multiflora essential oil. This essential oil showed the best fibrinolytic activity. Curcuma domestica also showed fibrinolytic activity, which might be related to the presence of curcumene, zingiberene and tumeron. The main component of Cinnamomum verum essential oil was cinnamaldehyde and fibrinolytic activity of this essential oil was lower than Zataria multiflora and Curcuma domestica.. The essential oil from Heracleum persicum with main components such as hexyl butyrate and liner esters did not have any significant fibrinolytic activity. Conclusion: In our study, it was found that Zataria multiflora, Curcuma domestica and Cinnamomum verum can dissolve blood clots in vitro. However, in vivo clot dissolving properties of these plants are yet to be discovered.
Sirvsn Atashak, Maghsood Peeri, Afshar Jafari, M.ali Azarbayijani,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (Fall 2010)

Introduction: The use of exercise along with herbal supplements is one of the recommended methods for controlling obesity and its complications, but its effects have been controversial due to the diversity of training programs and also herbal supplements. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 10 week ginger and progressive resistance training on C-reactive protein (CRP) and other cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. Methods: In a double-blind design, 32 obese men (BMI≥ 30) were selected and randomized to four groups (each group comprised of 8 subjects): 1- ginger (GI) 2- resistance training plus placebo (PLRT) 3- resistance training plus ginger (RTPL) and 4- placebo (PL). Subjects of groups 1 and 3 consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 weeks, while subjects of groups 2 and 3 performed progressive resistance training at the same time. To evaluate lipid profiles, insulin resistance and CRP, blood samples were collected at the beginning of the first week and after the last week. Moreover, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured simultaneously. Results: After 10 weeks of interventions, both GRT and PLRT groups showed a significant decrease in WC, WHR, body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol and insulin resistance, while these remained unchanged in two PL and GI groups (P>0.05). Moreover, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except the placebo group (P<0.05). Conclusion: According to our results, resistance training was a preventive approach to reduce the cardiovascular risk in obese men. Moreover, ginger supplementation did not have any influence on the lipid profile and insulin resistance at a dose of 1 gr/day, however, it exerted favorable effects on CRP in obese men.
Shahla Sohrabipour, Adele Jafari, Mohamad Kamalinejad, , Abdolfatah Sarrafnejd, Taherah Shahrestany, Hamid-Reza Sadeghipour,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (Fall 2011)

Introduction: Perepubertal varicocele can result in hypotrophy of testes, sperm damage and decrease the function of leydig cells in future. pathophysiology of varicocele is unclear. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a major theory. There are many controversies in treatment of pediatric varicocele. Flaxseed (FS) is the richest source of lignans with antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of flaxseed on oxidative stress in prepubertal rats with experimental varicocele. Methods: 35 male prepubertal rats were divided into 5 groups: control, sham, sham that fed base diet which was supplemented with 10% FS, varicocele, varicocele that fed base diet which was supplemented with 10% FS. Animals were sacrificed six weeks later. Sperm superoxide anion and H2O2 production, MDA in testis and total antioxidant capacity in semen were evaluated. Results: Intracellular superoxide anion and H2O2 production was significantly higher in varicocele induced group (P≤0.001), but FS significantly decreased them (P≤0.001). There was no significant difference for seminal plasma total antioxidant activity among all groups (P≥0.05). Left testicular MDA concentration of rats with varicocele that were fed by FS 10% was lower compared with varicocele groups (P≤0.05). Conclusion: Fs as a fat soluble antioxidant can protect the sperm membrane from the damage induced by ROS through its effective antioxidant potential.
Mahnaz Taherianfard, Javad Sajedianfard, Bita Geramizadeh, Neda Jafari, Gelareh Haghighatjoo, Farzaneh Hoseinnia,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (Winter 2012)

Introduction: Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol) is one of the extensively used antioxidants in the food industry. It is used in low-fat foods, fish products, packaging materials, paraffin, and mineral oils. BHT is also widely used in combination with other antioxidants such as BHA, propyl gallate, and citric acid for the stabilization of oils and high-fat foods. On the other hand, some investigators have reported that BHT has psychotic effects. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of BHT on learning and memory in a model of passive avoidance learning in male rats. Methods: Twenty-eight male rats weighting 180-260 g were used. Animals were divided into 4 groups: 1- control group (received sesame oil with the same volume as experimental groups) -2 experimental 1 (received BHT 25 mg/kg/day) 3- experimental 2 (received BHT 100 mg/kg/day) 4- experimental 3 (received BHT 150 mg/kg/day). BHT was administered by oral intake for 15 days. Learning and memory were assessed by a passive avoidance shuttle-box. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and Tucky's post-hoc test. The level of significant was set at P<0.05. Results: Our data showed that BHT at the doses of 25, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day significantly decreased the time spent in light compared to the control group. Conclusion: According to our results, BHT impairs learning and memory in passive avoidance learning.
Zahra Jahanbakhsh, Mohammad Taghi Mohammadi, Mahvash Jafari, Ali Khoshbaten, Maryam Salehi,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (Summer 2012)

Introduction:Severe abdominal aortic constriction above the renal arteries induces arterial hypertension above the stenotic site that is the cause of cardiac hypertrophy. Previous studies have shown that high blood pressure induces myocardial oxidative stress with conflicting results. In the present study, we assessed the effects of acute hypertension on the myocardial oxidative stress and its relation with cardiac hypertrophy. Methods:Experiments were performed on two groups of rats, sham and hypertensive (n=5 each group). Rats were made acutely hypertensive by aortic constriction above the renal arteries. After 10 days, the carotid artery pressure of rats was recorded and hearts were removed. Following tissue homogenization, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined by biochemical methods in heart tissues. Results:Arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy index (heart weight/body weight, g/kg) were increased in hypertensive rats 66% and 74%, respectively. SOD and CAT activity were significantly higher in hypertensive rats (34.42±2.51 and 38.63±4.03 U/mg protein, respectively) compared to sham animals (28.58±0.28 and 23.27±2.13 U/mg protein, respectively). Aortic-banding significantly increased GSH content of myocardium by 47%, and there was not any significant difference in the myocardial MDA between the two groups. Conclusion:The findings of this study indicate that acutely elevated arterial blood pressure induces cardiac hypertrophy concomitant with oxidative stress in rat myocardium. This study also reconfirms that oxidative stress may play an important role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy during hypertension.
Adele Jafari, Javad Fahanik-Babaei, Afsaneh Eliassi, Reza Saghiri,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (Spring 2013)

Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by impairment of memory and changes in behavior and personality. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial channels play important roles in memory disorders. Accordingly, the biophysical properties of a single potassium channel were investigated in the brain mitochondrial inner membrane of rat with Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: In the male Wistar rats (220-250 g), Alzheimer’s disease was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid beta 1-42 (4μg/μL). After two weeks, the brain mitochondrial inner membranes were extracted. Vesicles were incorporated into lipid bilayer membranes, and single potassium channel properties were investigated. Also, purity of the cell fraction was tested by Western blotting. Protein samples were probed with specific antibodies. Results: Based on our previous data, mitochondrial inner membrane has a potassium channel with a main conductance 93 pS which was 4-AP sensitive and voltage-insensitive at -50 to +40 mV. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the channel conductance was increased to 114 pS in Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, the currentvoltage relationship showed an inward rectification. Western blotting and antibodies directed against various cellular proteins revealed that the extracted material contains only mitochondria. Conclusion: Our data showed that the biophysical properties (gating, conductance and activities) of potassium channel were significantly altered in Alzheimer’s disease. Based on these findings, we propose that the brain mitochondrial potassium channels are involved in Alzheimer’s disease, and it can be considered as a target for therapeutic plans.
Javad Fahanikbabaei, Adele Jafari, Afsaneh Eliassi, Reza Saghiri,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (Spring 2013)

Introduction: Previous studies and our works have indicated several cation channels in the rat brain mitochondrial inner membrane. In this work, we report the single-channel characterization of a cation channel from the rat brain mitochondrial inner membrane incorporated into a planar lipid bilayer. Methods: After removing and homogenizing the adult rat brain, its supernatant was centrifuged in MSE-digitonin, H2O and Na2CO3, separately. Then, mitochondrial inner membrane vesicles were prepared in MSE solution. L-α- Phosphatidylcholine (for preparing membrane lipid bilayer) was extracted from fresh egg yolk. Bilayer lipid membranes were formed in a 150 μm diameter hole. All single channel recordings were filtered at 1 kHz and stored at a sampling rate of 10 kHz for offline analysis by PClamp10. Statistical analysis was performed based on Markov noise free single channel analysis. Results: The channel conductance was 93 pS in 200 mM KCl cis/50 mM KCl trans. The channel open probability appeared voltage-independent at -50 to +40 mV. The main characteristic of channel gating was its marked bursting behavior. Adding 10 mM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) at positive and negative potentials inhibited the channel activities. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that a new cation channel, present in the brain mitochondrial inner membrane, displays different kinetics and biophysical properties than those classically described for brain mitochondria.
Fatemeh Jafari, Maryam Khosravi, Akram Najafi-Abedi, Hedayat Sahraei, Mina Ranjbaran, Nasrin Amooei, Cyrus Jalili, Maryam Bagherpour,
Volume 17, Issue 2 (Summer 2013)

Introduction: Rosa Damasca essential oil is currently used as anti-depressant in animal models and human. Considering the similarities between Rosa Canina and Rosa Damasca, the effects of water and alcoholic extracts of R. Canina on depression induced by forced swimming test (FST) in mice were investigated. Methods: Male NMRI mice (25-30 g) were used (n=6/group). Intraperitoneal injections of alcoholic (5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg) and/or water (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg) extracts were administered to the animals 30 min before the FS. Intracerebroventricular injections of the alcoholic and water extracts (1, 5 and 10 μg/mice) to the animals were performed 5 min before FST. Results: Both intraperitoneal (20 and 30 mg/kg) and intracerebroventricular (5, 10 μg/Mouse) injections of R. Canina L. water extract dose-dependently reduced the animals immobilization, which was similar to the fluoxetine effect. However, the alcoholic extract of R. Canina L. did not change the immobility time in the animals when used intraperitoneally and intracerebroventricularly. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the water extract of R.Canina can inhibit depression induced by FST in mice. Since there are some components in the extract that can interact with D2 dopamine receptors in the brain, it is likely that the extract induced its antidepressant effects via such mechanism.
Maryam Arab Firouzjaei , Iraj Jafari Anarkoli , Mohammad Reza Jafari, Mehdi Eskandari , Mohsen Alipour,
Volume 17, Issue 4 (Winter 2014)

Introduction: Memory impairment is one of the complications of diabetes which may accompany with changes in expression of apoptotic and antiapoptotic genes. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of intra-hippocampal injection of aminoguanidine (AG), as an antioxidant and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, on passive avoidance memory and Bcl-2 family genes expression in diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced in male rats using streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p). AG (10 and 90 μg/rat) was injected by intra-hippocampal implanted cannulae. Passive avoidance memory was assessed 7 weeks later. Then, animals were killed and hippocampus was removed. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bcl-xLand Bax mRNA were measured using semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique. Results: Diabetes caused significant impairment in passive avoidance memory. None of the AG doses improved the memory impairment. In diabetic rats, the levels of Bcl–2 and Bcl-xL were decreased in hippocampus while the expression of Bax, Bax/Bcl-2 and Bax/Bcl-xL was increased. In comparison to diabetic control group, AG treatment increased the levels of Bcl–2 and Bcl-xL but decreased Bax/Bcl–2 and Bax/Bcl-xL. Conclusion: Although AG was not associated with the significant improvement of memory but it modified the expression of the apoptosis involved genes in hippocampus of STZ-induced diabetic rats.

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