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Showing 63 results for Antioxidant

Shiva Roshankhah, Cyrus Jalili, Mohammadreza Salahshoor,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (7-2019)
Abstract

Introduction: Petroselinum crispum (P. Crispum) is an associate of Umbelliferae family that has several therapeutic attributes. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the main challenges in acute kidney damage. This study was designed to assess the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of P. Crispum extract against I/R-induced renal disorders.
Methods: Forty male rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) namely normal control (saline) and I/R control group, and three groups of I/R intraperitoneally pretreated with various doses of P. Crispum (100, 150, and 200 mg/kg). The I/R-induced renal inflammation was evaluated by determining leukocyte infiltration and mRNA expression level of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and tumor necrotic factor-alpha. Antioxidant capacity of kidneys and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were measured in kidneys for the evaluation of oxidative stress. In addition, the diameters of renal glomeruli, kidney function indicators, and serum nitrite oxide levels were respectively determined by morphometric analysis, autoanalyzer device and Griess technique. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA test.
 Results: The I/R increased all measured parameters except for the tissue Ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) level, which was decreased compared to the normal control group (P < 0.001). However, pretreatment with P. Crispum extract in all doses significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen (BUN), kidney malondialdehyde (MDA), creatinine, glomerular diameter, leukocyte infiltration, levels of tumor necrotic factor-alpha, adhesion molecule-1 expression, and nitrite oxide and increased tissue FRAP compared to the I/R control group (P < 0.001).
Conclusion: It seems that P. Crispum administration improves I/R-induced acute kidney injury.

 
Mojtaba Salamtian, Vahid Mohammadi, Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (7-2019)
Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of cinnamon extract on the treatment and control of inflammation in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in Rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: untreated control, positive control group (acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis), cinnamon extract treated group (150 mg/kg BW; P.O.daily) and treated group with prednisolone (4 mg/kg BW; P.O.daily). After 10 consecutive days, the rats were euthanized and examined for the production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress indices in the intestinal tissue. Obtained data showed that both therapies could reduce the cumulative disease score. The results also indicated that treatment with Cinnamon caused a more benefit in restoring the total antioxidant capacity of the colonic specimens of the colitis induced rats compared to treatment with Prednisolone. The levels of MPO and NO were down-regulated in the guts of Cinnamon treated rats more than Prednisolone groups. Prednisolone significantly decreased the levels of TNF- α and IL-6 cytokines more than colitis rats treated with Cinnamon extract. The levels of COX-2 were decreased and conversely, the total protein content of colonic homogenates was increased in the guts of both treatment groups in a non-significant manner, compared to untreated colitis rats. These results demonstrated treatment with Cinnamon as herbal medicine is a promising strategy to improve the inflammation in a rat model of ulcerative colitis. It is logical to consider some of the beneficial effects of cinnamon extract associated with its direct antioxidant benefits, along with its direct anti-inflammatory benefits.
Farzaneh Shakeri, Mahmoud Hosseini, Ahmad Ghorbani,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (7-2019)
Abstract

Introduction: Various pharmacological effects of Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum) have been investigated including; antioxidant, antibacterial, anti ulcerogenic, cardiac stimulant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and immunomodulatory properties. It has also the beneficial effects in nervous system disorders, reproductive disorders and respiratory diseases. In this article the neuropharmacological effects of O. basilicum and its constituents is reviewed.
Methods: The data was gathered by searching; PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar using the following key words; The keywords used for the search were Basil, O. basilicum, neuropharmacological, neurotoxicity, neurodegeneration, memory, learning, epilepsy, pain, anticonvulsant, antianxiety, anxiety, depression and anti-depressant.
Results: This review indicates that O. basilicum and its constituents have various properties including anti, depression, anxiety, analgesic, antinociceptive and memory enhancer which are probably due to its antioxidant property of O. basilicum.
Conclusion: It seems that O. basilicum and its constituents could be of therapeutic values in nervous system diseases.
 

Volume 9, Issue 2 (11-2005)
Abstract


Mehdi Abbasnejad, Mansour Mirtajadini, Mohammad Reza Afarinesh, Neda Hassibi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (3-2006)
Abstract

Introduction: Origanum vulgare a rich source of natural phenolic antioxidants and has potential to be a source nutritional ingredients for functional food. Herbs such as Origanum have long been used in food preservation d in traditional medicine in the treatment of common ailments and have potential for positive modulation oxidation-linked diseases such as diabetes. Here we investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Origanum aves, stems and flowers) on spatial learning. Methods: After scientific identification, the leaves were used for extraction. 35 adult NMRI male rats weighing 0-350 gr were utilized in 5 groups. Control group (no injection), the second group (saline injected), the extracts h different doses (150, 300, 450) mg/kg were injected intraperitoneally to experimental animals. All animals re trained for a spatial learning task using T-maze and were then trained subsequently daily based on standard thod. Results: Statistic analysis ANOVA showed that Origanum aqueous extract significantly decreased the number learning and error in simple and reverse learning (p<0.05) and it had no significant effect on delay time in both e of learning. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the effect of Origanum extract on learning can be due to its antioxidant d presence of anti acetylcholine estrase compounds such as ursolic acid.
Moslem Najafi, Afshin Gharakhani, Hamed Ghavemi, Tahereh Eteraf Oskouei,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (12-2007)
Abstract

Introduction: In the current study, protective effect of natural honey applied during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) was studied on infarct size in ischemic heartheart. Methods: Ischemic hearthearts (n=8 per group) were mounted on a Langendorff apparatus at constant pressure then subjected to 30 min regional ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. In control group, the hearts were perfused by a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution throughout the experiment, however, in the test groups they were perfused by Krebs solution enriched by natural honey (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1%). At the end of reperfusion, the infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride and computerized planimetry methods. Results: The results showed that perfusion of ischemic hearthearts with natural honey produces significant reduction in infarct size and volume of infracted tissue. In the control group, infarct size was 45.6±3.4%, while honey (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1%) reduced it to 14.8±5.1 (p<0.001), 24.6±7.3 (p<0.01), 31.4±7.3 (p<0.05) and 42.6±6.1% (p>0.05), respectively. In addition, infracted volume was lowered from 229±22mm3 (control) to 78±26 (p<0.001), 120±30 (p<0.01), 160±31 (p<0.05) and 201±45mm3 (p>0.05), respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed protective effects of natural honey against I/R injuries as reduction of infarct size. Probably, antioxidant activity of honey, scavenging of free radicals and presence of energy sources such as glucose are involved in its cardioprotective effect. Lower honey concentration seems to be more effective.
Mehdi Abbasnejad, Sima Nasri, Habib Nazem, Mehri Bahaaddini,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (11-2008)
Abstract

Introduction: Ascorbic acid (AA) acts as an antioxidant in the Central nervous system (CNS) of the mammalians. It is released from the some nerve ending together with neurotransmitters. The results have shown that Ascorbic acid could affect learning as well as memory. In this study, we examined the effect of ICV injection of ascorbic acid on learning and memory by Morris water maze. Method: In the present study, 42 adult male rats weighing 250-300 g were used. then cannula implanted bilaterally in LV (AP=-0.8, LA=±1.5, DV=3.4).After recovery period, the animals were divided into 6 groups including control group(no injected), 4 groups as experimental groups (received different doses of ascorbic acid 25, 50, 100, 150 mg/kg), 5th group as Sham-operated group (received normal saline as vehicle). Injection period has taken five consecutive days. 30 min after each injection they were trained in Morris Water Maze (MWM). Spatial learning and memory parameters recorded and then were analyzed. Results: These results showed that ICV injection of ascorbic acid decreased learning and spatial memory in rats. Ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg) significantly decreased learning and spatial memory. Conclusion: It can be concluded that ascorbic acid decreased learning and spatial memory, directly or indirectly through interference to the neurotransmitters effects.
Masoumeh Sabetkasaei, Amin Ataie, Abbas Haghparast, Akbar Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Ramin Ataie, Shiva Nasiraei,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (11-2009)
Abstract

Introduction: Aging is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Oxidative stress can induce neuronal damages and modulate intracellular signaling, ultimately leading to neuronal death by apoptosis or necrosis. Methods: In this study, we investigated the possible antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of the polyphenolic antioxidant compound, Curcumin against homocysteine (Hcy) neurotoxicity. Curcumin (5, 15, 45 mg/kg) was injected intraperitonealy once daily for a period of 10 days beginning 5 days prior to Hcy (0.2 μmol/μl) intracerebroventricular injection in rats. Biochemical and behavioral studies, including passive avoidance learning and locomotor activity tests were studied 24 h after the last curcumin or its vehicle injection. Also Histopathological studies and cell dencity in different regions of hippocampus was investigated. Results: Hcy could induce lipid peroxidation and increase MDA and SOA levels in rats' brain. Additionally, Hcy impaired memory retention in passive avoidance learning test. However, Curcumin treatment decreased MDA and SOA levels significantly as well as improved learning and memory in rats. Histopathological analysis also indicated that Hcy could decrease hippocampus cell count and Curcumin inhibited this toxic effect. Conclusion: These results suggest that Hcy may induce lipid peroxidation in rats' brain and decrease hippocampus cells. Also polyphenol treatment (Curcumin) has the ability to improve learning and memory deficits by protecting the nervous system against Oxidative stress. Keywords: Homocysteine, Curcumin, Lipid peroxidation, Oxidative Stress
Zahra Tayarani-Najaran, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Mozhgan Asghari, Seyed Hadi Mousavi,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (11-2009)
Abstract

Introduction: The Serum/Glucose deprivation -induced cell death in cultured PC12 cells represents a useful in vitro model for the study of brain ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Nigella sativa L. has been known as a source of antioxidants. To elucidate the neuroprotective actions of N. sativa extract in vitro, we studied the effect of N. sativa extract on cultured PC12 cells under serum/glucose deprivation conditions. Methods: PC12 cells were cultured in DMEM medium containing 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum, 100 units/ml penicillin, and 100 μg/ml streptomycin. Cells were seeded overnight and then deprived of serum/glucose for 6 and 18 h. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of N. sativa extract (7.81-250 μg/ml). Cell viability was quantitated by MTT assay. Intracellular ROS production was measured by flow cytometry using 2', 7’-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCF-DA). Results: Depriving the PC-12 cells of serum/glucose caused prominent cell toxicity at least after 6 and 18 h. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with N. sativa (7.81-250 μg/ml) could reduce serum/glucose deprivation-induced cytotoicity in PC12 cells after 18 h. The experimental results suggest that N. sativa extract protects the PC12 cells against Serum/Glucose deprivation-induced cytotoxicity. Conclusion: Our findings might raise a possibility of potential therapeutic application of N. sativa extract for preventing and treating cerebral ischemic and neurodegenerative diseases.
Banafsheh Ranjbar, Iran Pouraboli, Mitra Mehrabani, Shahriar Dabiri, Abdolreza Javadi,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (3-2010)
Abstract

Introduction: Antioxidant agents have beneficial effects in diabetes mellitus. Daucus carota seeds extract has been shown to possess antioxidant activity. In this study, the effect of the methanolic extract of Daucus carota seeds on carbohydrate metabolism and morphology of pancreas was investigated in type I diabetic male rats. Methods: Type I diabetes mellitus was induced in male Wistar rats by injection of 70 mg/kg, i. p. of streptozotocin. Blood samples were collected from the eye cavernousa sinus, before and 5 days after injections for measurement of glucose and insulin. Diabetes was confirmed in rats that had FBS levels above 250 mg/dl. Diabetic rats were divided to 5 groups that received 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of the extract, glibenclamide (600 μg/kg) and distilled water (0.5 ml) daily for 6 days by gastric gavage. After 6 days, they were sacrificed by decapitation and fasting blood samples were collected and serum levels of glucose and insulin were measured by spectrophotometric and ELISA methods, respectively, by using commercial kits. The pancreas of the rats were dissected out and fixed in 10% formaldehyde for histological studies. Results: Administration of all doses of Daucus carota seeds extract and glibenclamide for 6 days significantly decreased serum glucose levels, however, only 300 mg/kg of the extract as well as glibenclamide significantly increased insulin serum levels. Furthermore the extract and glybenclamide improved pancreas asinuses and islets as the number of islets significantly increased in rats receiving 100 mg/kg of the extract or glibenclamide. Conclusion: D. carota seeds extract has hypoglycemic effect by increasing insulin secretion and improvement of the pancreas.
Yaser Masoumi-Ardakani, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Amin Derakhshanfar, Khadije Esmaeilpour Bezenjani, Ali Mostafavi,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (10-2010)
Abstract

Introduction: Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammation of the large intestine (colon). In patients with ulcerative colitis, ulcers and inflammation of the inner lining of the colon lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. Previous studies have shown that Matricaria recutita L. have a series of physiological effects for example spasmolytic, carminative, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. In the present study, the effect of this herbal aqueous extract on a model of acute experimental colitis was evaluated. Methods: Experiments were performed on 5 groups (N=7) of male NMRI rats (230-280g). Three groups were administered orally different doses of extract (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg), fourth group received vehicle and the last considered as control group. For induction of colitis the rats were fasted for 36 hours and then anaesthetized with ether, at the last stage 2 ml of acetic acid 4% was instilled via the anus. After 24 hours the macroscopic study showed the colitis indices. Results: The aqueous extract of M. recutita with doses of (20 and 30 mg/kg) significantly reduced colon weight/length ratio. Extract with the highest dose (30 mg/kg) was effective to decrease as well as inflammation severity and extent. The histopathological studies of colon section showed that, curing or treating effects of extract 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg is mild, moderate and completely, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that Matricaria recutita L. aqueous extract was effective in treatment against experimental acute colitis. It can decrease inflammatory indices of ulcerative colitis.
Moslem Najafi, Afshin Gharakhani, Tahereh Eteraf Oskouei,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (1-2011)
Abstract

Introduction: This study was aimed to investigate the effects of postconditioning by natural honey on cardiac arrhythmias in the ischemic isolated rat heart. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups then anesthetized by sodium pentobarbital. The animal hearts were removed and quickly mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and perfused under constant pressure by a modified Krebs-Henseleit (K/H) solution that was previously equilibrated with 95% O2–5% CO2. The hearts were subjected to 30 min regional ischemia followed by 30 min reperfusion. In the control group, the hearts perfused by normal K/H solution, however in the postconditioning groups, they were perfused with natural honey (0.25, 0.5 and 1%) enriched K/H solution from 10 min before to 10 min after reperfusion. The ECGs were analyzed to determine the total number of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs), ventricular tachycardia (VT), the incidence and duration of VT and ventricular fibrillation (VF) during last 10 min of ischemia and the first 30 min of reperfusion. Results: During ischemia, honey (0.25, 0.5 and 1%) produced significant reduction in the number of VEBs and number, duration and incidence of VT (P<0.01). The incidence and time spent in VF were lowered by honey compared to the control group (P<0.05). During reperfusion time, all used concentrations of honey significantly reduced the number of VEBs (P<0.05). In addition, honey (0.5 and 1%) decreased the number and duration of VT (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Moreover, VF duration was lowered by perfusion of honey (0.25 and 0.5 %) versus the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The results showed protective effects of postconditioning by honey against ischemia-reperfusion injuries as anti-arrhythmic activities. Probably, antioxidant activity of honey, by scavenging of free radicals, and the presence of important energy sources such as glucose and fructose by improvement of cardiac function may involve in these protective effects.
Maryam Norozi Sarkarabad, Samad Zare,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (10-2011)
Abstract

Introduction: The principal dose-limiting factor in the use of cisplatin as an antineoplastic drug is its hepatic toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the protective role of taurine against cisplatin-induced hepatic injury. Methods: Male albino rats (180-220 g) were divided in to 4 groups (n=8) as follows: (1) saline-treated group (2): cisplatin-treated group (10 mg/kg ip) (3): group that received taurine (200 mg/kg ip) for 1hr before cisplatin (10 mg/kg ip) administration (4): taurine treated group (200 mg/kg ip). After 7 days, the animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected from the heart as well as liver tissues were kept at -70 °C till further analyses. Results: analyses showed that cisplatin significantly increased ALT and AST serum levels (P<0.05) while pretreatment with taurine resulted in the reduction of these markers. Catalase activity in cisplatin-treated rats was significantly decreased (P<0.05) and taurine administration could recover this reduction. MDA content of the liver tissue was significantly increased in cisplatin-exposed animals, while taurine treatment reduced the amount of MDA in liver tissue. Conclusion: Our data suggest that taurine prevents from cisplatin-induced hepatic injury and this effect may be due to its antioxidant properties.
Shahla Sohrabipour, Adele Jafari, Mohamad Kamalinejad, , Abdolfatah Sarrafnejd, Taherah Shahrestany, Hamid-Reza Sadeghipour,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (10-2011)
Abstract

Introduction: Perepubertal varicocele can result in hypotrophy of testes, sperm damage and decrease the function of leydig cells in future. pathophysiology of varicocele is unclear. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a major theory. There are many controversies in treatment of pediatric varicocele. Flaxseed (FS) is the richest source of lignans with antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to investigate effect of flaxseed on oxidative stress in prepubertal rats with experimental varicocele. Methods: 35 male prepubertal rats were divided into 5 groups: control, sham, sham that fed base diet which was supplemented with 10% FS, varicocele, varicocele that fed base diet which was supplemented with 10% FS. Animals were sacrificed six weeks later. Sperm superoxide anion and H2O2 production, MDA in testis and total antioxidant capacity in semen were evaluated. Results: Intracellular superoxide anion and H2O2 production was significantly higher in varicocele induced group (P≤0.001), but FS significantly decreased them (P≤0.001). There was no significant difference for seminal plasma total antioxidant activity among all groups (P≥0.05). Left testicular MDA concentration of rats with varicocele that were fed by FS 10% was lower compared with varicocele groups (P≤0.05). Conclusion: Fs as a fat soluble antioxidant can protect the sperm membrane from the damage induced by ROS through its effective antioxidant potential.
Mitra Jalali, Morteza Behnam Rassouli , Maryam Tehrani Por , Nargess Ghayour, Jena Khayatzadeh, Hamid Jannati,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2012)
Abstract

Introduction: Liver plays a pivotal role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of L. acanthodes hydro-alcoholic extract administration on the liver functional and histological parameters in hyperglycemic rats. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups control, hyperglycemic (STZ), hyperglycemic + insulin (STZ+Ins) and hyperglycemic + extract (STZ+Ext). After a single injection of STZ (55 mg/kg, i.p.) and confirmation of hyperglycemia induction, rats of STZ+Ins and STZ+Ext were daily treated with insulin (5 IU/kg/day) and extract (150 mg/kg/day), respectively, for 21 days. To assess the serum levels of biochemical parameters and liver markers, all rats were kept until the 7th week and then they were sacrificed and their livers were histologically examined. Results: Serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, glucose and triglyceride in STZ and STZ+Ins groups were significantly increased in comparison with control and STZ+Ext groups at the 2nd week. At the 4th week, although the mean levels of liver enzymes were increased in STZ+Ext (p<0.05) but its level of significance was lower that STZ and STZ+Ins groups (p<0.001) groups. Microscopic examination of liver sections showed no histological difference between control and experimental samples. Conclusion: Streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia may result in abnormal levels of liver markers. This liver malfunction is probably caused by hepatocyte membrane damage due to the free radical production induced by hyperglycemia. It seems that antioxidant property of flavonoids constituents of L.acanthodes, may prevent hepatocytes damage and therefore reduce the serum levels of liver markers.
Mahnaz Taherianfard, Javad Sajedianfard, Bita Geramizadeh, Neda Jafari, Gelareh Haghighatjoo, Farzaneh Hoseinnia,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2012)
Abstract

Introduction: Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol) is one of the extensively used antioxidants in the food industry. It is used in low-fat foods, fish products, packaging materials, paraffin, and mineral oils. BHT is also widely used in combination with other antioxidants such as BHA, propyl gallate, and citric acid for the stabilization of oils and high-fat foods. On the other hand, some investigators have reported that BHT has psychotic effects. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of BHT on learning and memory in a model of passive avoidance learning in male rats. Methods: Twenty-eight male rats weighting 180-260 g were used. Animals were divided into 4 groups: 1- control group (received sesame oil with the same volume as experimental groups) -2 experimental 1 (received BHT 25 mg/kg/day) 3- experimental 2 (received BHT 100 mg/kg/day) 4- experimental 3 (received BHT 150 mg/kg/day). BHT was administered by oral intake for 15 days. Learning and memory were assessed by a passive avoidance shuttle-box. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and Tucky's post-hoc test. The level of significant was set at P<0.05. Results: Our data showed that BHT at the doses of 25, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day significantly decreased the time spent in light compared to the control group. Conclusion: According to our results, BHT impairs learning and memory in passive avoidance learning.
Zahra Ghasemi, Saeedeh Fakharzadeh, Mohammad Hassan Nazaran, Mahyar Janahmadi,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (7-2012)
Abstract

Introduction: Oxidative stress is one of the important pathologic factors involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidants as neutralizing agents of free radicals are one of the treatment options for these diseases and antioxidant agents that can pass through blood brain barrier have beneficial effects. In the present research, the antioxidant effect of a new iron nanochelator on the electrophysiological characteristics of neural cells following H2O2– induced oxidative stress was investigated. Methods:Intracellular recordings were made under the current clamp condition on F1 cells of Helix aspersa. Effects of oxidant agent, H2O2(1 mM), in the presence of the new iron nanochelator at high (2.63 mM) and low (263 µM) concentrations were assessed on the firing pattern and action potential parameters and were compared to the control condition. Results:Application of H2O2led to a significant decrease in the firing pattern and AP amplitude and an increase in the time to peak compared with control condition. Addition of the antioxidant following H2O2treatment increased these parameters and restored them to the control condition. On the other hand, effects of H2O2 on the electrical activity of cell were modulated when the antioxidant was used earlier. Conclusion:Based on the modulating effects of the new synthesized iron nanochelator on verified action potential parameters in the presence of H2O2, it can be concluded that nanochelator probably exerts its antioxidant effects through the alterations of the function of ion channels.
Saeed Esmaeili Mahani, Ayat Kaeidi,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (7-2012)
Abstract

Introduction:Olive leaves have been recommended in the scientific literature and traditional medicine as a cure for the treatment of diabetes and this plant has powerful antioxidants and neuroprotective effects. Here, we studied the possible effects of olive leaf extract (OLE) on motor deficits in diabetic neuropathy. Methods:The rotarod treadmill test was used to access motor coordination in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Different doses of OLE (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, i.g.) were given. Serum glucose and insulin levels were assessed by specific kits. Results:Four weeks after diabetes induction, glucose level was significantly decreased and insulin concentration increased (P<0.001). The rotarod treadmill test showed a marked impairment of the motor coordination of the diabetic animals (P<0.001). The retention time of the diabetic animals was reduced by 61.2% compared to the control animals, whereas treatment with 300 mg/kg OLE increased retention time to 83.6% of the control values. That dose had a moderate lowering effect on serum glucose with no effect on insulin levels. Conclusion:The results suggest that olive leaf extract has protective effects against high glucose-induced motor defects in diabetic rats.
Manijeh Mianabadi, Mahdieh Hoshani, Mahnaz Aghdasi, Majid Azim-Mohseni,
Volume 16, Issue 3 (10-2012)
Abstract

Introduction: Physalis alkekengi (Solanaceae) is a rich source of various antioxidants. There are some reports that show P. alkekengi has been used for treatment of a wide range of diseases including gout and inflammation. Xanthine oxidase plays a crucial role in gout. Many natural compounds such as various flavonoids have been reported to have inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase. Methods: Different parts of P. alkekengi including leave, calyx, green and orange fruits at different stages of plant growth were gathered from around the Tonekabon, Iran. Then, they were dried in the dark and powdered. Inhibitory effect of various plant extracts on xanthine oxidase activity was measured. Soluble sugar and ascorbic acid contents of plant samples, and their correlation with xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect were also determined. Results: All extracts from different parts of P. alkekengi at the concentration of 0.3 mg/ml had inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase activity with different degrees from 45% (leaves in the vegetative stage) up to 86.86% (leaves in the green fruit stage and calyxs). The leaves, fruits and calyx stage of maturity contained the highest amount of soluble sugar. Also, maximum amount of total ascorbic acid was displayed in an orange calyx, 12.65 mg.fw-1. Conclusion: These results suggest that extracts of P. alkekengi at different phonological stages have high inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase activity and they are valuable sources of antioxidant compounds. The green fruit, green calyx and orange calyx had the highest inhibitory effects on the xanthine oxidase activity. Therefore, they are recommended as the most appropriate tissues for the next pharmacological studies.
Seyed Mehdi Beheshti Nasr, Ali Moghimi, Mohammad Mohammad-Zadeh,
Volume 16, Issue 3 (10-2012)
Abstract

Introduction: Minocycline is a derivative of tetracycline that has anti-inflammatory, antiappoptic, antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. Since there is a relationship between cell death and seizure, the aim of this study was to examine the role of minocycline in development of amygdala kindling in Wistar rats. Methods: In this study, 21 rats were divided into three groups. After sterotaxic surgery and 1 week recovery period, rats received kindling stimulations (twice daily at 6 hour intervals). Group 1 (n=7) received daily kindling stimulations. Groups 2 (n=7) and 3(n=7) received saline (1 ml/kg) and minocycline (25 mg/kg), respectively, 60 min before kindling stimulation. Cumulative After discharge Duration (ADD), Cumulative Seizure duration (SD) and Seizure Stage (SS) were recorded and compared to the control group. Results: In group 3, intraperitoneal administration of minocycline for 10 days significantly reduced cumulative ADD (control group: 907.2±64.5, minocycline group: 717.8±67.9) [F(18, 216)=3.5, p<0.001] ،and cumulative SD (control group: 999.4±79.8, minocycline group: 776.1±77) [F(19, 228)=3.8, p<0.001] compared to control group (group 2). It also significantly increased the mean number of stimulations to achieve the seizure stage 3 (control group: 7.2±0.6, minocycline group: 11±1) (P<0.05), and 5 (control group: 10.7±0.1, minocycline group: 18.7±0.3) (P<0.001). Conclusion: According to the obtained results, application of minocycline increases the time required for amygdala kindling and may have anticonvulsant effects.

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