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Showing 11 results for Subject: Gastrointestinal system

Mojtaba Salamtian, Vahid Mohammadi, Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani,
Volume 0, Issue 0 (7-2019)

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of cinnamon extract on the treatment and control of inflammation in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in Rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: untreated control, positive control group (acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis), cinnamon extract treated group (150 mg/kg BW; P.O.daily) and treated group with prednisolone (4 mg/kg BW; P.O.daily). After 10 consecutive days, the rats were euthanized and examined for the production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress indices in the intestinal tissue. Obtained data showed that both therapies could reduce the cumulative disease score. The results also indicated that treatment with Cinnamon caused a more benefit in restoring the total antioxidant capacity of the colonic specimens of the colitis induced rats compared to treatment with Prednisolone. The levels of MPO and NO were down-regulated in the guts of Cinnamon treated rats more than Prednisolone groups. Prednisolone significantly decreased the levels of TNF- α and IL-6 cytokines more than colitis rats treated with Cinnamon extract. The levels of COX-2 were decreased and conversely, the total protein content of colonic homogenates was increased in the guts of both treatment groups in a non-significant manner, compared to untreated colitis rats. These results demonstrated treatment with Cinnamon as herbal medicine is a promising strategy to improve the inflammation in a rat model of ulcerative colitis. It is logical to consider some of the beneficial effects of cinnamon extract associated with its direct antioxidant benefits, along with its direct anti-inflammatory benefits.
Ali Mard, Mohammad Kazem Gharib Naseri, Mhamad Badavi,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (4-2009)

Abstract Introduction: There are many studies about the inhibitory effect of the esophageal distention (ED) on gastric motility. Recently, it has been shown that ED decreases the gastric secretions. It is well established that the inhibitory effect of ED is mediated by activation of vago-vagal inhibitory reflex. However, there is not any investigation about the effect of the reflex on the gastric blood flow and release of gastric hormones. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of esophageal distention (ED) on gastric blood flow and release of gastrin and somatostatin hormones. Methods: In this study 79 male Wistar rats (175-230 g) were used. deprived of food but not water 24 h before the experiments. Under urethane anesthesia (1.2 g/kg, i.p.), animals underwent tracheostomy and laparotomy. A catheter was inserted in the stomach through duodenum for gastric distension. The esophagus was cannulated with a balloon orally to distend distal portion of esophagus (0.3 ml, 10 min). Saline was used for gastric distension (1.5 ml/100 g, b.w., pH 7 and 37 °C). Gastric blood flow was measured by a Laser Doppler flowmeter. Gastrin serum and somatostatin plasma levels were assessed by RIA method. Vagotomy was carried out in a group to reveal the role of vagus nerve in this action. Results: ED reduced the blood flow of gastric proximal portion (P<0.001) but the antrum blood flow was unaffected by ED. Cervical vagotomy abolished the inhibitory effect of the ED on the proximal area blood flow. Gastrin serum level and somatostatin plasma level were unaffected by ED. Conclusion: Removal of the inhibitory effect of ED after vagotomy shows that the vagus nerve was involved in the inhibitory effect on gastric blood flow. Keywords: Esophageal distension, Gastric blood flow, Vagus nerve, Rat, Gastrin, Somatostatin
Yaser Masoumi-Ardakani, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Amin Derakhshanfar, Khadije Esmaeilpour Bezenjani, Ali Mostafavi,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (10-2010)

Introduction: Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammation of the large intestine (colon). In patients with ulcerative colitis, ulcers and inflammation of the inner lining of the colon lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. Previous studies have shown that Matricaria recutita L. have a series of physiological effects for example spasmolytic, carminative, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. In the present study, the effect of this herbal aqueous extract on a model of acute experimental colitis was evaluated. Methods: Experiments were performed on 5 groups (N=7) of male NMRI rats (230-280g). Three groups were administered orally different doses of extract (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg), fourth group received vehicle and the last considered as control group. For induction of colitis the rats were fasted for 36 hours and then anaesthetized with ether, at the last stage 2 ml of acetic acid 4% was instilled via the anus. After 24 hours the macroscopic study showed the colitis indices. Results: The aqueous extract of M. recutita with doses of (20 and 30 mg/kg) significantly reduced colon weight/length ratio. Extract with the highest dose (30 mg/kg) was effective to decrease as well as inflammation severity and extent. The histopathological studies of colon section showed that, curing or treating effects of extract 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg is mild, moderate and completely, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that Matricaria recutita L. aqueous extract was effective in treatment against experimental acute colitis. It can decrease inflammatory indices of ulcerative colitis.
Seyyed Ali Mard, Maryam Maleki, Mohammad Kazem Gharib Naseri, Alihosein Saberi,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (1-2012)

Introduction: Recently, hydrogen sulfide has been introduced as the third gas that acts as a transmitter. It has many physiological and pharmacological roles in the human body. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exogenously administered and endogenously produced H2S on the basal and distention-induced gastric acid secretion in rats. Methods: Forty-nine male Wistar rats (150-200 g) were randomly assigned into 7 groups (7 rats per group). To evaluate the effect of H2S on the basal acid secretion, three groups of animals received an IV bolus of NaHS, a H2S donor, at the doses of 20, 40 or 80 μg/Kg. The effects of IV NaHS 20, 40 or 80 μg/Kg were also investigated on distention-induced gastric acid secretion in other three groups. In order to evaluate the effect of endogenously produced H2S on distention-induced gastric acid secretion, one group of animals received IV propargylglycine (PAG), a cystathionine-γ-lyase inhibitor, 100 mg/kg. Results: NaHS decreased the basal and distention-induced gastric acid secretion in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). PAG increased the gastric output in response to distention compared to the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Our results showed that both exogenous administration and endogenous production of H2S decrease the gastric acid output. Also, the findings of the present study suggest that endogenously produced H2S has a modulatory effect on stimulated gastric acid output similar to nitric oxide (NO).
Ghader Jalilzadeh-Amin, Behzad Mehrivar Qarehdarvishlu,
Volume 18, Issue 4 (1-2015)

Introduction: Artemisia dracunculus L. belongs to Asteraceae family, and is a medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine as a remedy for gastrointestinal disturbances. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of essential oil of A. dracunculus (EOAD) on the rat alimentary tract. Methods: The EOAD was extracted by Clevenger apparatus using hydrodistillation. LD50 was calculated based on the Lorke’s method. The effects of EOAD (50–125 mg/kg) on intestinal transit time and diarrhea were investigated in adult Wistar rats. EOAD was administered via oral route. For antidiarrheal effect evaluation, castor oil (2 mL/rat) was administered intragastrically 30 min after EOAD (50-100 mg/kg) treatments and loperamide (3 mg/kg). The rat cages were inspected hourly up to 4 hours for the presence of the characteristic diarrheal droppings, start time of diarrhea, weight of stool, and the number of stool plates. Results: The LD50 was 707.10 mg/kg. EOAD significantly inhibited intestinal motility at 125 mg/kg dose (P<0.05). EO inhibitory effect was significantly (P<0.05) enhanced with simultaneous atropine. Castor oil caused diarrhea in all animals in the control group in 93.83± 4.81 min. EOAD inhibited the castor oil-induced diarrhea at 75 and 100 mg/kg doses. The EOAD delayed the onset of diarrhea, and produced a significant decrease in the frequency of defecation as well as severity of diarrhea. It also protected the rats against diarrhea. In comparison with loperamid, the reference antidiarrheal agent, the higher dose of EOAD demonstrated the same effective protection as castor oil-induced diarrhoea. Conclusion: These primary data indicated that the plant contains antidiarrheal constituents, which support the popular therapeutic use of A. dracunculus for gastrointestinal disorders in traditional medicine.
Sara Gharib, Aminollah Bahaoddini, Jafar Vatanparast, Mahmoodreza Moein,
Volume 18, Issue 4 (1-2015)

Introduction: The ginger rhizome has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. In the present study the effect of ginger alcoholic extract on mechanical activity of isolated jejunum of male rats and also its interaction with cholinergic, adrenergic and Nitrergic systems were investigated. Methods: Seven adult male Wistar rats were anesthetized by ethyl ether, their abdomen opened, and jejunum dissected and divided into 1 cm strips. The strips were divided to experimental and control groups, and placed in organ baths containing oxygenated, 37˚C, pH=7.4 Tyrode’s solution connected to a force transducer which was linked to AD Instrument power lab. In the experimental group, 0.475 mg/mL alcoholic ginger extract and in the control group solvent was added to the organ bath. Then mechanical activity of the strips in each group was recorded before and after administration of acetyl choline (as cholinergic agonist), phenylephrine (as α-adrenergic agonist), isoproterenol (as β- adrenergic agonist), propranolol (as β-adrenergic antagonist) and L-NAME (as nitric oxide synthase blocker). Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS and independent-sample t-test at P≤0.05 as significance level. Results: A significant (p<0.05) decrease in mechanical activity was found after administration of alcoholic ginger extract compared with the control group, which was not reversed after acetyl choline administration. Also, no change was detected after administration of phenylephrine, isoproterenol, propranolol and L-NAME. Conclusion: This study showed that alcoholic extract of ginger has modifying effect on intestinal motility that is partly related to the cholinergic system and possibly independent of the adrenergic and nitrergic systems.
Seyyed Ali Mard, Hajar Godarzinejad, Mahin Dianat,
Volume 20, Issue 1 (2-2016)

Introduction: It has been reported the alkaline response of pancreas to duodenal acidification is partly mediated through duodenal release of H2S, but till now the effect of duodenal acidification on gastric H2S release has not been investigated. Therefore, the present study designed to evaluate the effects of duodenal acidification on gastric H2S release and level of mRNA expression of cystathionine gamma lyase (CSE).
Methods: Twenty four rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups (8 in each). They were control, pH2-, and pH3-treated groups. Under anesthesia, animals underwent midline laparotomy. Neutral isotonic saline or acidic isotonic solutions (pH=2 or 3) were injected in the duodenum 1 cm just below the pyloric sphincter. Ninety minutes after beginning the experiment, animals were sacrificed, stomachs ligated at lower esophageal sphincter and 2 ml saline infused in the stomach through pylorus and then gastric content was drained for measuring the pH. Two samples of gastric mucosal tissue were quickly snap-frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for measuring the mucosal H2S concentration using ELISA kit and quantifying the mRNA expression of CSE by quantitative real-time PCR.
Results: Duodenal acidification with acidic solution (pH=2) increased the gastric release of H2S and upregulated mRNA expression of CSE in gastric mucosa. The gastric mucous content was significantly increased in response to duodenal application of acidic solutions with pH2 and 3.
Conclusion: Our findings indicated the stimulatory effect of duodenal acidification on gastric H2S release and mucous content is mediated through upregulation of CSE mRNA expression.

Seyyed Ali Mard, Iraj Ahmadi, Mohammad Kazem Gharib-Naseri, Feryal Savary,
Volume 21, Issue 3 (9-2017)

Introduction: Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) has shown to enhance the gastric emptying rate in normal rats but till now its effect on gastric emptying of food stuffs in diabetic rats was not investigated. Therefore, this study designed to determine the role of an oral administration of NaHS on gastric emptying rate (GER) of glucose, albumin and olive oil in gastroparetic and normal rats. Methods: To evaluate the effect of NaHS on the gastric emptying of glucose, albumin and olive oil in normal rats, thirty-six normal rats randomly assigned in six experimental groups (6 per group). Three groups of rats considered as control. They received albumin, glucose or olive oil orally. Three other normal groups considered as NaHS-treated animals. These groups received NaHS (320 μg/kg, orally) 30 min prior to food stuffs. To investigate the effect of NaHS on the gastric emptying of food stuffs in diabetic rats, the same protocols carried out. Thirty min after intragastric administration of food stuffs, animals received acetaminophen (as a marker for gastric emptying rate). Results: The results showed that in normal and gastroparetic rats, an oral administration of NaHS accelerated gastric emptying of glucose, albumin and olive oil. The increased gastric emptying of glucose, albumin and olive oil in NaHS-pretreated gastroparetic rats was 89.9, 92.3 and 60% respectively more than in corresponding’s controls.

Parichehr Hassanzadeh, Elham Arbabi, Fatemeh Atyabi, Rassoul Dinarvand,
Volume 22, Issue 1 (3-2018)

Introduction: Anandamide (AEA) has shown a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including the effects against the peptic ulcer, meanwhile, the poor solubility or short half-life may negatively affect the effectiveness of this valuable cannabinoid. Based on the superior properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for controlled drug delivery, we aimed to prepare AEA-CNTs complex and evaluate its therapeutic potential in an experimental model of gastric ulcer. Methods: Amino-functionalized multi-walled CNTs-AEA (MWCNTs-AEA) complex was prepared using COOH-MWCNTs and then characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Gastric ulcer was induced by water immersion and restrain stress (WRS) for 3.5 and 6 h in rats and the gastric lesion and oxidative stress were evaluated. Results: AEA at higher doses reduced the gastric ulcer area and malondialdehyde content and elevated glutathione level and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities after 3.5-h WRS but it was ineffective after 6-h WRS. MWCNTs-AEA complex showed therapeutic effects after both 3.5- and 6-h WRS. Conclusion: Aminated MWCNTs are suitable carriers for AEA as they provide longer lasting effects for this cannabinoid. The antioxidant mechanism may be involved in the gastroprotective effects of MWCNTs-AEA complex.

Nasim Nazariani, Seyyed Ali Mard, Sima Nasri, Ali Veisi,
Volume 22, Issue 1 (3-2018)

Introduction: The incidence rate of gastric erosions and ulcers in diabetic patients are higher due to failure of mucosal antioxidant defense and maintain enough blood flow. The present study evaluated the gastro-protective effect of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in diabetic rats. Methods: In order to test anti-ulcer activity of NaHS against indomethacin, four diabetic groups of rats including diabetic control and 3 NaHS-treated groups received a single dose of physiologic saline or NaHS at 320, 640 and 1280 μg/kg respectively, 30 min before ulcer induction by indomethacin. Five hours later, the animals were killed and their stomachs were removed for macroscopically and microscopically evaluations. In order to evaluate the antacid effect of NaHS, 4 groups of diabetic rats received physiologic saline or NaHS at 320, 640 and 1280 μg/kg and 30 min later anesthetized, underwent a midline laparotomy and then their pylorus ligated. Five hours later, the animals were killed, their stomachs were removed and pH of gastric effluents were measured. Results: Indomethacin induced gastric lesions in glandular part of the stomach. NaHS at 640 and 1280 μg/kg significantly decreased the indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in diabetic rats. The pH of gastric effluents and mucus content increased by NaHS at doses of 640 and 1280 μg/kg. Macroscopic and microscopic observations showed that mucosal erosions induced by indomethacin were significantly inhibited by NaHS. Conclusion: results suggest NaHS through decreasing the rate of gastric acid output and increasing the mucus production, protected the gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in diabetic rats.

Zakieh Keshavarzi, Fatemeh Nurmohammadi, Saba Majlesi, Fatemeh Maghool,
Volume 23, Issue 1 (3-2019)

Introduction: Walnuts (Juglans regia), has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of walnut extract (WE) on an experimental model of ulcerative colitis caused by intracolonic administration of acetic acid in rats. Methods: A total number of 30 rats were used, randomly assigned to five groups of 6 rats each. Group I: colitis without treatment (colitis control), group II: normal animals (normal control), in groups III and IV colitis induced rats were treated with WE (10 and 20mg/kg) for 8 consecutive days, and group V were treated with sulfasalazine (SLS, 200mg/kg) as a standard drug. Several parameters, including macroscopic and histopathological scores and malondialdehyde (MDA), total sulfhydryl (SH) groups, colonic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured using standard assay procedures. Results: Results revealed that treatment with 10mg/kg WE for 8 days attenuated the macroscopic and histopathological colonic damage scores as well as colonic levels of MDA, while increased the levels of total SH, SOD and GPx compared with colitis untreated group. The 20mg/kg dose had no protective effects. Conclusion: These findings suggest that protective effect of WE in the experimental model of colitis could be through an antioxidant mechanism.

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